安全网 safety net

按可比口径 on comparable basis

按轻重缓急 to prioritize

暗补 implicit subsidy

暗亏 hidden loss


颁发营业执照 to license;to grant a licence to

办理存款业务 to take deposits

保护农民的生产积极性 to protect farmers’incentive to produce

备付金(超额准备金) excess reserves

本外币并账 consolidation of domestic and foreign currencyaccounts

本外币对冲操作 sterilization operation

本位利益 localized interest;departmentalism

奔小康 to strive to prosper;to strive to become well-to-do

避税(请见“逃税”) tax avoidance

币种搭配不当 currency mismatch

币种构成 currency composition

变相社会集资 disguised irregular(or illegal) fund raising

表外科目(业务) off-balance-sheet items(operation)

薄弱环节 weaknesses;loopholes

不变成本 fixed cost

不变价 at constant price;in real terms

不动产 real estate

不良贷款(资产) problem loans;non-performing loans(assets)


财务公司 finance companies

财政赤字 fiscal deficit

财政挤银行 fiscal pressure on the central bank(over monetary policy)

财政政策与货币政策的配合 coordination of fiscal and monetary policies

采取循序渐进的方法 in a phased and sequenced manner

操作弹性 operational flexibility

操纵汇率 to manipulate exchange rate

产品构成 product composition;product mix

产品积压 stock pile;excessive inventory

产销率 current period inventory;(即期库存,不含前期库存)sales/output ratio

产销衔接 marketability

产业政策 industrial policy

长期国债 treasury bonds

敞口头寸 open position

炒股 to speculate in the stock market

承购包销 underwrite(securities)

成套机电产品 complete sets of equipment;complete plant(s)

城市信用社 urban credit cooperatives(UCCs)

城市合作银行 urban cooperative banks;municipal united banks

城市商业银行 municipal commercial banks

城乡居民收入增长超过物价涨幅 real growth in household income

持续升温 persistent overheating

重复布点 duplicate projects

重置成本 replacement cost

重组计划 restructuring plan

筹资渠道 funding sources;financing channels

初见成效 initial success

出口统一管理、归口经营 canalization of exports

出口退税 export tax rebate

储蓄存款 household deposits(不完全等同于西方的savingsdeposits,前者包括活期存款,后者不包括。)

储蓄分流 diversion of household deposits

储源萎缩 decline in the availability of household savings

传导机制 transmission mechanism

从价税 ad valorem tax

从紧控制 tight control

存贷款比例 loan/deposit ratio

存款保险体系 deposit insurance system

存款货币银行 deposit money banks

存款准备金 required reserves


[ 作者: 来源: 点击次数:680 发布时间:2007-7-23 13:33:21 ]


打白条 issue IOU

大额存单 certificate of deposit(CD)

大额提现 withdraw deposits in large amounts

大面积滑坡 wide-spread decline

大一统的银行体制 (all-in-one)mono-bank system

呆账(请见“坏账”) bad loans

呆账准备金 loan loss reserves(provisions)

呆滞贷款 idle loans

贷款沉淀 non-performing loans

贷款分类 loan classification

贷款限额管理 credit control;to impose credit ceiling

贷款约束机制 credit disciplinary(constraint)mechanism

代理国库 to act as fiscal agent

代理金融机构贷款 make loans on behalf of other institutions

戴帽贷款 ear-marked loans

倒逼机制 reversed transmission of the pressure for easing monetary condition

道德风险 moral hazard

地区差别 regional disparity

第一产业 the primary industry

第二产业 the secondary industry

第三产业 the service industry;the tertiary industry

递延资产 deferrable assets

订货不足 insufficient orders

定期存款 time deposits

定向募集 raising funds from targeted sources

东道国(请见“母国”) host country

独立核算 independent accounting

短期国债 treasury bills

对冲操作 sterilization operation;hedging

对非金融部门债权 claims on non-financial sector

多种所有制形式 diversified ownership


恶性通货膨胀 hyperinflation

二级市场 secondary market


发行货币 to issue currency

发行总股本 total stock issue

法定准备金 required reserves;reserve requirement

法人股 institutional shares

法人股东 institutional shareholders

法治 rule of law

房地产投资 real estate investment

放松银根 to ease monetary policy

非现场稽核 off-site surveillance(or monitoring)

非银行金融机构 non-bank financial institutions

非赢利性机构 non-profit organizations

分税制 assignment of central and local taxes;tax assignment system

分业经营 segregation of financial business(services);division of business scope based on the type of financial institutions

风险暴露(风险敞口) risk exposure

风险管理 risk management

风险意识 risk awareness

风险资本比例 risk-weighted capital ratios

风险资本标准 risk-based capital standard

服务事业收入 public service charges;user’s charges

扶贫 poverty alleviation

负增长 negative growth

复式预算制 double-entry budgeting;capital and current budgetary account


改革试点 reform experimentation

杠杆率 leverage ratio

杠杆收购 leveraged buyout

高息集资 to raise funds by offering high interest

个人股 non-institutional shares

根本扭转 fundamental turnaround(or reversal)

公开市场操作 open market operations

公款私存 deposit public funds in personal accounts

公用事业 public utilities

公有经济 the state-owned sector;the public sector

公有制 public ownership

工业成本利润率 profit-to-cost ratio

工业增加值 industrial value added

供大于求 supply exceeding demand;excessive supply

鼓励措施 incentives

股份合作企业 joint-equity cooperative enterprises

股份制企业 joint-equity enterprises

股份制银行 joint-equity banks

固定资产贷款 fixed asset loans

关税减免 tariff reduction and exemption

关税减让 tariff concessions

关税优惠 tariff incentives;preferential tariff treatment

规范行为 to regularize(or standardize)…behavior

规模效益 economies of scale

国计民生 national interest and people’s livelihood

国家对个人其他支出 other government outlays to individuals

国家风险 country risk

国际分工 international division of labor

国际收支 balance of payments

国有独资商业银行 wholly state-owned commercial banks

国有经济(部门) the state-owned(or public)sector

国有企业 state-owned enterprises(SOEs)

国有制 state-ownership

国有资产流失 erosion of state assets

国债回购 government securities repurchase

国债一级自营商 primary underwriters of government securities

过度竞争 excessive competition

过度膨胀 excessive expansion

过热迹象 signs of overheating


合理预期 rational expectation

核心资本 core capital

合资企业 joint-venture enterprises

红利 dividend

宏观经济运营良好 sound macroeconomic performance

宏观经济基本状况 macroeconomic fundamentals

宏观调控 macroeconomic management(or adjustment)

宏观调控目标 macroeconomic objectives(or targets)

坏账 bad debt

还本付息 debt service

换汇成本 unit export cost;local currency cost of export earnings

汇兑在途 funds in float

汇兑支出 advance payment of remittance by the beneficiary’s bank

汇率并轨 unification of exchange rates

活期存款 demand deposits

汇率失调 exchange rate misalignment

混合所有制 diversified(mixed)ownership

货币政策态势 monetary policy stance

货款拖欠 overdue obligations to suppliers


基本建设投资 investment in infrastructure

基本经济要素 economic fundamentals

基本适度 broadly appropriate

基准利率 benchmark interest rate

机关团体存款 deposits of non-profit institutions

机会成本 opportunity cost

激励机制 incentive mechanism

积压严重 heavy stockpile;excessive inventory

挤提存款 run on banks

挤占挪用 unwarranted diversion of(financial)resources(from designated uses)

技改投资 investment in technological upgrading

技术密集型产品 technology-intensive product

计划单列市 municipalities with independent planning status

计划经济 planned economy

集体经济 the collective sector

加大结构调整力度 to intensify structural adjustment

加工贸易 processing trade

加快态势 accelerating trend

加强税收征管稽查 to enhance tax administration

加权价 weighted average price

价格放开 price liberalization

价格形成机制 pricing mechanism

减亏 to reduce losses

简化手续 to cut red tape;to simplify(streamline)procedures

交投活跃 brisk trading

缴存准备金 to deposit required reserves

结构扭曲 structural distortion

结构失调 structural imbalance

结构性矛盾突出 acute structural imbalance

结构优化 structural improvement(optimization)

结汇、售汇 sale and purchase of foreign exchange

金融脆弱 financial fragility

金融动荡 financial turbulence

金融风波 financial disturbance

金融恐慌 financial panic

金融危机 financial crisis

金融压抑 financial repression

金融衍生物 financial derivatives

金融诈骗 financial fraud

紧缩银根 to tighten monetary policy

紧缩政策 austerity policies;tight financial policies

经常账户可兑换 current account convertibility

经济特区 special economic zones(SEZs)

经济体制改革 economic reform

经济增长方式的转变 change in the main source of economic growth(from investment expansion to efficiency gains)

经济增长减速 economic slowdown;moderation in economic growth

经济制裁 economic sanction

经营自主权 autonomy in management

景气回升 recovery in business activity

境外投资 overseas investment

竞争加剧 intensifying competition

局部性金融风波 localized(isolated)financial disturbance


开办人民币业务 to engage in RMB business

可维持(可持续)经济增长 sustainable economic growth

可变成本 variable cost

可自由兑换货币 freely convertible currency

控制现金投放 control currency issuance

扣除物价因素 in real terms;on inflation-adjusted basis

库存产品 inventory

跨国银行业务 cross-border banking

跨年度采购 cross-year procurement

会计准则 accounting standard


来料加工 processing of imported materials for export

离岸银行业务 off-shore banking(business)

理顺外贸体制 to rationalize foreign trade regime

利率杠杆的调节作用 the role of interest rates in resource allocation

利润驱动 profit-driven

利息回收率 interest collection ratio

联行清算 inter-bank settlement

连锁企业 franchise(businesses);chain businesses

良性循环 virtuous cycle

两极分化 growing income disparity;polarization in income distribution

零售物价指数 retail price index(RPI)

流动性比例 liquidity ratio

流动资产周转率/流通速度 velocity of liquid assets

流动资金贷款 working capital loans

流通体制 distribution system

流通网络 distribution network

留购(租赁期满时承租人可购买租赁物) hire purchase

垄断行业 monopolized industry(sector)

乱集资 irregular(illegal)fund raising

乱收费 irregular(illegal)charges

乱摊派 unjustified(arbitrary)levies


买方市场 buyer’s market

卖方市场 seller’s market

卖出回购证券 matched sale of repo

贸易差额 trade balance

民间信用 non-institutionalized credit

免二减三 exemption of income tax for the first two years ofmaking profit and 50% tax reduction for thefollowing three years

明补 explicit subsidy

明亏 explicit loss

名牌产品 brand products

母国(请见“东道国”) home country


内部控制 internal control

内部审计 internal audit

内地与香港 the mainland and Hong Kong

内债 domestic debt

扭亏为盈 to turn a loss-making enterprise into a profitable one

扭曲金融分配 distorted allocation of financial resources

农副产品采购支出 outlays for agricultural procurement

农村信用社 rural credit cooperatives(RCCs)


泡沫效应 bubble effect

泡沫经济 bubble economy

培育新的经济增长点 to tap new sources of economic growth

片面追求发展速度 excessive pursuit of growth

平衡发展 balanced development

瓶颈制约 bottleneck(constraints)

平稳回升 steady recovery

铺底流动资金 initial(start-up)working capital

普遍回升 broad-based recovery

配套改革 concomitant(supporting)reforms

配套人民币资金 local currency funding of…


企业办社会 enterprises burdened with social responsibilities

企业集团战略 corporate group strategy

企业兼并重组 company merger and restructuring

企业领导班子 enterprise management

企业所得税 enterprise(corporate)income tax

企业效益 corporate profitability

企业资金违规流入股市 irregular flow of enterprise funds into the stock market

欠税 tax arrears

欠息 overdue interest

强化税收征管 to strengthen tax administration

强制措施 enforcement action

翘尾因素 carryover effect

切一刀 partial application

清理收回贷款 clean up and recover loans

(破产)清算 liquidation

倾斜政策 preferential policy

区别对待 differential treatment

趋势加强 intensifying trend

全球化 globalization

权益回报率 returns on equity(ROE)

缺乏后劲 unsustainable momentum


绕规模贷款 to circumvent credit ceiling

人均国内生产总值 per capita GDP

人均收入 per capita income

人民币升值压力 upward pressure on the Renminbi(exchange rate)

认缴资本 subscribed capital

软贷款 soft loans

软预算约束 soft budget constraint

软着陆 soft landing


外部审计 external audit

外国直接投资 foreign direct investment (FDI)

外汇储备 foreign exchange reserves

外汇调剂 foreign exchange swap

外汇占款 the RMB counterpart of foreign exchange reserves;the RMB equivalent of offcial foreign exchange holdings

外向型经济 export-oriented economy

外债 external debt

外资企业 foreign-funded enterprises

完善现代企业制度 to improve the modern enterprise system

完税凭证 tax payment documentation

违法经营 illegal business

委托存款 entrusted deposits

稳步增长 steady growth

稳健的银行系统 a sound banking system

稳中求进 to make progress while ensuring stability

无纸交易 book-entry(or paperless/scriptless)transaction

物价监测 price monitoring


吸纳流动性 to absorb liquidity

稀缺经济 scarcity economy

洗钱 money laundering

系统内调度 fund allocation within a bank

系统性金融危机 systemic financial crisis

下岗工人 laid-off employees

下游企业 down-stream enterprises

现场稽核 on-site examination

现金滞留(居民手中) cash held outside the banking system

乡镇企业 township and village enterprises(TVEs)

消费物价指数 consumer price index(CPI)

消费税 excise(consumption)tax

消灭财政赤字 to balance the budget;to eliminate fiscal deficit

销货款回笼 reflow of corporate sales income to the banking system

销售平淡 lackluster sales

协议外资金额 committed amount of foreign investment

新经济增长点 new sources of economic growth

新开工项目 new projects;newly started projects

新增贷款 incremental credit; loan increment; credit growth; credit expansion

新增就业位置 new jobs;new job opportunities

信贷规模考核 review the compliance with credit ceilings

信号失真 distorted signals

信托投资公司 trust and investment companies

信息不对称 information asymmetry

信息反馈 feedback(information)

信息共享系统 information sharing system

信息披露 information disclosure

信用扩张 credir expansion

信用评级 credit rating

姓“资”还是姓“社” pertaining to socialism or capitalism;socialist orcaptialist

行政措施 administrative measures

需求膨胀 demand expansion; excessive demand

虚伪存款 window-dressing deposits

削减冗员 to shed excess labor force

寻租 rent seeking

迅速反弹 quick rebound


养老基金 pension fund

一刀切 universal application;non-discretionary implementation

一级市场 primary market

应收未收利息 overdue interest

银行网点 banking outlets

赢利能力 profitability

营业税 business tax

硬贷款(商业贷款) commercial loans

用地审批 to grant land use right

有管理的浮动汇率 managed floating exchange rate

证券投资 portfolio investment

游资(热钱) hot money

有市场的产品 marketable products

有效供给 effective supply

诱发新一轮经济扩张 trigger a new round of economic expansion

逾期贷款 overdue loans;past-due loans

与国际惯例接轨 to become compatible with internationally accepted

与国际市场接轨 to integrate with the world market

预算外支出(收入) off-budget (extra-budgetary) expenditure(revenue)

预调 pre-emptive adjustment

月环比 on a month-on-month basis; on a monthly basis


再贷款 central bank lending

在国际金融机构储备头寸 reserve position in international financial institutions

在人行存款 deposits at (with) the central bank

在途资金 fund in float

增加农业投入 to increase investment in agriculture

增势减缓 deceleration of growth;moderation of growthmomentum

增收节支措施 revenue-enhancing and expenditure control measures

增长平稳 steady growth

增值税 value-added tax(VAT)

涨幅偏高 higher-than-desirable growth rate;excessive growth

账外账 concealed accounts

折旧 depreciation

整顿 retrenchment;consolidation

政策工具 policy instrument

政策性业务 policy-related operations

政策性银行 policy banks

政策组合 policy mix

政府干预 government intervention

证券交易清算 settlement of securities transactions

证券业务占款 funding of securities purchase

支付困难 payment difficulty

支付能力 payment capacity

直接调控方式向 to increase the reliance on indirect policy instruments

间接调控方式转变职能转换 transformation of functions

职业道德 professional ethics

指令性措施 mandatory measures

指令性计划 mandatory plan;administered plan

制定和实施货币政策 to conduct monetary policy;to formulate and implement monetary policy

滞后影响 lagged effect

中介机构 intermediaries

中央与地方财政 delineation of fiscal responsibilities

分灶吃饭重点建设 key construction projects;key investment project

周期谷底 bottom(trough)of business cycle

周转速度 velocity

主办银行 main bank

主权风险 sovereign risk

注册资本 registered capital

逐步到位 to phase in;phased implementation

逐步取消 to phase out

抓大放小 to seize the big and free the small(to maintain close oversight on the large state-ownedenterprises and subject smaller ones to market competition)

专款专用 use of funds as ear-marked

转贷 on-lending

转轨经济 transition economy

转机 turnaround

转折关头 turning point

准财政赤字 quasi-fiscal deficit

准货币 quasi-money

资本不足 under-capitalized

资本充足率 capital adequacy ratio

资本利润率 return on capital

资本账户可兑换 capital account convertibility

资不抵债 insolvent;insolvency

资产负债表 balance sheet

资产负债率 liability/asset ratio;ratio of liabilities to assets

资产集中 asset concentration

资产贡献率 asset contribution factor

资产利润率 return on assets (ROA)

资产质量 asset quality

资产组合 asset portfolio

资金成本 cost of funding;cost of capital;financing cost

资金到位 fully funded (project)

资金宽裕 to have sufficient funds

资金利用率 fund utilization rate

资金缺口 financing gap

资金体外循环 financial disintermediation

资金占压 funds tied up

自筹投资项目 self-financed projects

自有资金 equity fund

综合国力 overall national strength(often measured by GDP)

综合效益指标 overall efficiency indicator

综合治理 comprehensive adjustment(retrenchment);over-haul

总成交额 total contract value

总交易量 total amount of transactions

总成本 total cost

最后贷款人 lender of last resort

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